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A flip-chip interconnect process at 180°C using the silver-indium (Ag-In) binary system is reported. An array of 50 × 50 flip-chip joints with 100 μm pitch and 40 μm joint diameter was fabricated. Each joint has the column structure of Ag/(Ag)/Ag2In/(Ag) that connects the silicon (Si) chip to the copper (Cu) substrate. The joint height is approximately 50 μm. In this structure, Ag2In is a dominating intermetallic compound in the Ag-In system with melting temperature of 660°C. (Ag) is a solid solution phase of Ag with In composition up to 20 at.%. It has a solidus temperature range of 695 to 962°C depending on In composition. In long-term operation, (Ag)/Ag2In/(Ag) is expected to gradually convert to a single (Ag) phase, which is more reliable. Thus, the flip-chip joints will get better in use. In fabrication, 50 × 50 Ag columns were made on Si wafer coated with chromium (Cr) and gold (Au). The Cu substrate was electroplated with Ag(10 μm)/In(5 μm)/Ag(thin). Si chips with Ag columns were bonded to Cu substrates at 180°C for 5 min. No flux was used. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images show that all 50 Ag columns in one row are well bonded to the Cu substrate without visible voids or cracks. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate that the resulting column structure is Ag/(Ag)/Ag2In/(Ag). The process temperature of this new interconnect method is 80 °C below the typical reflow temperature of tin-based lead-free solders.
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:2 , Issue: 6 )
Date of Publication: June 2012