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A novel parameter estimation algorithm of fast moving targets using single-antenna airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) databased on desampling and Radon transform (RT) is introduced in this letter. First, the dual-channel data are constructed by desampling the single-antenna airborne SAR data in the azimuth direction. Then, the clutter and the spectrum aliasing of the moving target can be cancelled by coherent subtracting. As a result, the moving target trajectory exhibits a single curve in both the range-compressed and the range-Doppler domains. Second, range cell migration correction is adopted to eliminate the range curve and parts of the range walk. Owing to the Doppler ambiguity, the moving target trajectory becomes a straight line. Third, the desampled Doppler ambiguity number and the Doppler rate of the moving target can be calculated by the slope of the line, which is measured by RT. Finally, along- and across-track velocities of the moving target are further obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is validated by the simulated and real data.