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Owing to its low transmitter complexity and low sensitivity to nonlinear impairments, phase noise, and frequency offset, the single carrier system with frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE) is of interest for high-bit-rate optical transmission. In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate a 8×40-Gb/s optical coherent polarization-multiplexed SC-FDE over 2080-km fiber transmission using novel training sequences. The sequences are designed based on Chu and Golay complementary sequences to have binary levels and are fully compatible with the commercial quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) systems. The use of these training sequences helps achieve accurate channel estimation and equalization in full-system demonstration.