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The energy dissipation pattern of low-energy electron beams (0.3–30 keV) in multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) materials is studied by Monte Carlo simulation taking into account secondary-electron cascade generation. A quasi first-principles discrete-energy-loss model deduced from a dielectric response function description of electronic excitations in MWCNTs is employed whereby both single-particle and plasmon excitations are included in a unified and self-consistent manner. Our simulations provide practical analytical functions for computing depth-dose curves and charged-carrier generation volumes in MWCNT materials under low-energy electron beam irradiation.