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The dynamic spectrum access technology can achieve near-optimal spectrum utilization by allowing cognitive users sense and utilize available spectrum opportunistically. Time overhead and fairness are part of the key evaluation criteria for the spectrum allocation algorithms, and a naive spectrum assignment can lead to significant unfairness and system overhead. In this paper, based on graph coloring model, the evaluation system and optimization goals are established. Aim at the poor fairness in the parallel algorithm, an improved algorithm is proposed. Without increasing time overhead, the improved parallel algorithm can improve the allocation fairness between cognitive users. Simulation and analysis prove this conclusion.