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This paper describes the analysis and synthesis of microstrip grid-array antennas at millimeter-wave frequencies. The basic principle of operation is revisited through careful examination of current distributions, impedance, and radiation characteristics on a typical microstrip grid-array antenna. An extensive analysis of microstrip grid-array antennas of different meshes on a variety of substrates is conducted, showing that the choice of substrate has a strong influence on the performance of the microstrip grid-array antenna. A set of closed-form formulas is obtained for an initial synthesis of a microstrip grid-array antenna. A particular design example is given. A comparison of simulated and measured performance showed good agreement, which confirmed the validity of the analysis and synthesis.