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This study investigates the impact of driver behaviour/driving-style on the energy consumption, state-of-charge (SOC) usage and range, of all-electric vehicles (EVs). Results from many driving cycles using a sole driver, along with those from a pre-defined ~40 km route encompassing both urban and rural roads in Sheffield (UK) with various drivers, are given and analysed. The platform for the study is an all electric-drive Smart Fortwo ED, supplied using Zebra battery technology. Measurements of real-time quantities such as wheel speed and SOC over a number of driving trials show that energy consumption is significantly affected by driving style, and that through basic statistical analysis of acceleration profiles, for instance, a metric for assessing 'good driving practice' can be obtained. It is ultimately shown that the difference between driving in a moderate manner, and more aggressively, can make ~30% difference in energy consumption - amounting to 30 g/km of CO2 (equivalent) over the driving duty considered in this case. The results also highlight the substantial savings that can be accrued by appropriate traffic management in congested areas, by allowing the driver to minimise periods of repeated acceleration/deceleration and allow longer periods of steady-speed motion. Although a pure EV platform is used to focus the study, ultimately the results are more widely applicable to plug-in hybrid counterparts.
Date of Publication: March 2012