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Air-coupled wideband ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers are used in the frequency range 0.3 to 1.3 MHz to excite and sense first-order thickness resonances in the leaves of four different tree species at different levels of hydration. The phase and magnitude spectra of these resonances are measured, and the inverse problem solved; that is, leaf thickness and density, ultrasound velocity, and the attenuation coefficient are obtained. The elastic constant in the thickness direction (c33) is then determined from density and velocity data. The paper focuses on the study of c33, which provides a unique, fast, and noninvasive ultrasonic method to determine leaf elasticity and leaf water content.