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As the scarcity of frequency resources and the increasing wireless broadband requirements become very serious problems worldwide, more and more attention has been focused on TDD technology development, which is anticipated to provide desirable solutions to these problems. This has boosted standard evolution from TDSCDMA to TD-LTE and TD-LTE-Advanced in recent years, with a lot of innovative technologies contributed to the TDD-based cellular mobile communication world. This article mainly presents the evolution strategies from TDSCDMA to TD-LTE and TD-LTE-Advanced, including standardization progress, key technologies, performance evaluation, industry development, and commercial status. Some new technologies and challenging work for TD-LTE beyond are discussed as well.