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The advent of multi-standard and multi-band software defined radio (SDR) applications has necessitated the design and deployment of dual-band RF components and circuits considering the numerous advantages of such designs over the traditional narrow band circuits and components. For example, a dual-band power amplifier (PA) not only simplifies the hardware complexity but also provides higher reconfigurability  and hence makes it a front runner for deployment in SDR architectures . Furthermore, the evolution of communication technologies demands the use of dualband/ multi-band RF circuits so as to acc ommodate many standards simultaneously for facilitating and guaranteeing the backward compatibility of future standards (such as 4 G) based system for smooth network migration and upgrades. These technological requirements have also led to commercial introduction of dual-band base stations and repeaters . Furthermore, the advancement in CMOS and other MMIC technologies, although, is challenging the transmission line based passive circuit techniques but the high power handling ability of transmission line based circuits are potentially very useful in applications such as the design of high power/high efficiency PAs and transmitters. This article elaborates on the techniques employed in the design of transmission line based dual-band RF components in the context of multi-band/multi-mode SDR architecture, highlighting the problems which need to be addressed during the design process.