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This article highlights recent advances in the design of noninvasive neural interfaces based on the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG). The simplest of physical tasks, such as turning the page to read this article, requires an intense burst of brain activity. It happens in milliseconds and requires little conscious thought. But for amputees and stroke victims with diminished motor-sensory skills, this process can be difficult or impossible. Our team at the University of Maryland, in conjunction with the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and the University of Maryland School of Medicine, hopes to offer these people newfound mobility and dexterity. In separate research thrusts, were using data gleaned from scalp EEG to develop reliable brain-machine interface (BMI) systems that could soon control modern devices such as prosthetic limbs or powered robotic exoskeletons.