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Geolocation Performance With Biased Range Measurements

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3 Author(s)
Ning Liu ; Univ. of California, Riverside, CA, USA ; Zhengyuan Xu ; Sadler, B.M.

We study geolocation based on biased range estimates. Positive bias arises using time delay ranging methods in a multipath fading environment, when the line of sight direct path is severely attenuated. We model the range measurement as contaminated with Gaussian noise and an additive nonnegative bias term, and consider deterministic and random bias cases. We develop weighted least squares (WLS) and maximum likelihood (ML) geolocation estimators, and show that in general they yield biased geolocation estimates. A perturbation analysis technique is applied to find bias and mean square error (MSE) expressions for the WLS and MLE algorithms. MLE generally outperforms WLS, because MLE exploits knowledge of the range measurement bias distribution. The location error expressions are functions of the measurement bias and variance, as well as the network geometry. These results are useful to study achievable geolocation performance, and are applied to optimize sensor placement for improving the overall geolocation accuracy. We also develop the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) on geolocation for our model. The CRB is a bound on unbiased estimation, whereas the geolocation algorithms may be biased, and we show how the estimators approach the CRB in certain cases. Numerical examples are presented to verify the analysis and study some cases of interest.

Published in:

Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:60 ,  Issue: 5 )