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Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received a tremendous amount of attention since the first report of a 7% efficient cell in 1991. Confirmed record efficiencies are now 11.2% for small cells and 9.9% for submodules, and low-cost production methods are enabling manufacturing of DSSC products for a variety of markets. This review describes the present status of DSSC devices and manufacturing as well as research challenges that must be addressed to continue the rapid commercialization of DSSC technology. These challenges fall into the categories of improving efficiency, stability, and manufacturability. Efficiency improvements will hinge on the development of new combinations of dyes, redox couples, and photoanodes. Best-case lifetimes are determined by the kinetics of various molecular-level processes, and realization of these lifetimes will require improved encapsulation of cells and modules. Low-cost and sustainable manufacturing of DSSC modules depends on use of high-throughput roll-to-roll processing and inexpensive, abundant materials. Prospects for simultaneous improvement of efficiency, stability, and manufacturing are discussed.
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films (Volume:30 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: Mar 2012