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We propose a unique structure for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs/with a Schottky barrier control gate (SBC gate) to improve the sensitivity of CNT-FET biosensors. The performance of the new biosensors was compared with conventional devices with back gate-type CNT-FETs both through experiments and calculations. The SBC gate-type CNT-FETs could detect proteins with three times greater sensitivity than the back gate-type CNT-FETs in the experimental measurements. The sensitivity of SBC gate-type CNT-FET biosensors was calculated to be five times greater than that of back gate-type CNT-FETs in simulations using the finite element method.