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As traffic demands continue to grow, supporting data rates beyond 100 Gb/s will be required to increase optical channel capacity and support higher-rate client interfaces. Advanced modulation formats that adapt to optimize spectral efficiency over a range of channel signal-tonoise ratio conditions are required. Channels can be constructed by varying parameters such as symbol rate, bits per symbol, number of polarizations, and number of optical and electrical subcarriers. Channel capacity can also be increased using advanced techniques such as optical time-division multiplexing, and fibers that support multiple cores and modes. Many channel designs can support higher data rates, but there are trade-offs between complexity, spectral efficiency, and optical reach.