Cart (Loading....) | Create Account
Close category search window
 

A Comparison of Closed-Loop Control Algorithms for Regulating Electrically Stimulated Knee Movements in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
Lynch, C.L. ; Inst. of Biomater. & Biomed. Eng., Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada ; Popovic, M.R.

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is the most commonly used technology for improving motor function in individuals who have spinal cord injury. Despite the wide range of FES applications reported in the literature, few electrical stimulation systems that can generate meaningful functional outcomes are currently available for use outside research laboratories. We tested proportional-integral-derivative, gain scheduling, and sliding mode control closed-loop control algorithms in a simulation of electrically induced knee extension against gravity to uncover some of the reasons why closed-loop control is not being more widely used in real-world FES systems. We also subjected the simulated FES system to muscle fatigue, muscle spasms, and the effects of muscle retraining. All of the controllers exhibited significantly degraded performance when these real-world nonlinear effects were included in the simulation. Moreover, all of the controllers were sensitive to variation in the parameters of the muscle recruitment function, which are subject to change during real-world FES use. We suggest several ways to improve the performance of closed-loop control algorithms for use in FES applications. We believe that closed-loop controllers have an important place in future FES applications, but the performance of these algorithms must be greatly improved before they can be implemented in real-world systems.

Published in:

Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:20 ,  Issue: 4 )

Date of Publication:

July 2012

Need Help?


IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity About IEEE Xplore | Contact | Help | Terms of Use | Nondiscrimination Policy | Site Map | Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.