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The regional climate change in Guizhou area is special and complex. In this study, the information theory was used for the nonlinear time series analysis of Guizhou short-term climate change. It was found that, the greatest impact element on the annual average air temperature was pressure, followed by sunshine duration, low cloud cover, etc., and the same in spring and autumn. The sunshine duration was the greatest impact element on the summer air temperature, followed by relative humidity, and low cloud cover, and so on. In winter, the effect order of meteorological elements on the surface air temperature was not very clear, relative humidity and sunshine duration were the two more important factors.