Skip to Main Content
This paper shows the use of FEM for a second order time dependent electromagnetic field problem, around grounding systems (GS). Twenty-node isoparametric quadratic 3D finite element, three-node quadratic 1D finite element and a spatial transformation of the “infinite space” into the finite space are all applied to achieve better accuracy. Time integration is conducted with the Newmark algorithm. The applied program solution is suitable for any GS and isotropic/anisotropic soil properties as well as time-varying fault current.