Skip to Main Content
In this paper, we describe the first- and second-level system packaging structure of the IBM zEnterprise® 196 (z196) enterprise-class server. The design point required a more than 50% overall increase in system performance (in millions of instructions per second) in comparison to its predecessor. This resulted in a new system design that includes, among other things, increased input/output bandwidth, more processors with higher frequencies, and increased current demand of more than 2,000 A for the six processor chips and two cache chips per multichip module. To achieve these targets, we implemented several new packaging technologies. The z196 enterprise-class server uses a new differential memory interface between the processor chips and custom-designed server memory modules. The electrical power delivery system design follows a substantially new approach using Vicor Factor Power® blocks, which results in higher packaging integration density and minimized package electrical losses. The power noise decoupling strategy was changed because of the availability of deep-trench technology on the new processor chip generation.
Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.