Skip to Main Content
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) will in effect be fully deployed and operational in a few years, even with the delays in Galileo as a consequence of European Union's financial difficulties. The vastly broadened GNSS spectra, spread densely across 1146-1616 MHz, versus the narrow Global Positioning System (GPS) L1 and L2 bands, together with a constellation of over 100 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites versus GPS' 24 MEO satellites, are revolutionizing the design of GNSS receive antennas. For example, a higher elevation cutoff angle will be preferred. As a result, fundamental changes in antenna design, new features and applications, as well as cost structures are ongoing. Existing GNSS receive antenna technologies are reviewed and design challenges are discussed.