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In 2005, the Cobb County Department of Transportation, Cobb County, GA, conducted an adaptive signal control pilot study implementing the Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System (SCATS) on 15 intersections. This paper presents the results of a before-and-after probe-vehicle-based operational comparison of optimized time-of-day (i.e., before control) and SCATS (i.e., after control) traffic control system performance. The focus of this operational analysis is the typical operating performance during the weekday peak, weekday off-peak, and weekend travel periods. Travel time data were collected using Global-Positioning-System (GPS)-equipped test vehicles. The results showed that both systems provided good performance, whereas neither the before time-of-day or after SCATS is clearly dominant, except on Cumberland Parkway, where SCATS control consistently provides equivalent or superior performance to that of the time-of-day control.