Vacancy-type defects in Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were probed using a monoenergetic positron beam. For a sample fabricated with a high H2-flow rate, before post-growth annealing the major defect species detected by positrons was identified as vacancy-clusters. Evidence suggested that other donor-type defects such as nitrogen vacancies also existed. The defects increased the Fermi level position, and enhanced the diffusion of positrons toward the surface. The annihilation of positrons at the top surface was suppressed by Mg-doping. This was attributed to the introduction of a subsurface layer (<6 nm) with a low defect concentration, where the Fermi level position was considered to decrease due to partial activation of Mg. For samples after annealing, the trapping of positrons by residual vacancy-type defects was observed, and the sample crystal quality was found to depend on that before annealing.