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PCM-FTL: A Write-Activity-Aware NAND Flash Memory Management Scheme for PCM-Based Embedded Systems

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5 Author(s)
Duo Liu ; Dept. of Comput., Hong Kong Polytech. Univ., Kowloon, China ; Tianzheng Wang ; Yi Wang ; Zhiwei Qin
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Due to its properties of high density, in-place update, and low standby power, phase change memory (PCM) becomes a promising main memory alternative in embedded systems. On the other hand, NAND flash memory is widely used as a secondary storage and has been integrated into PCM-based embedded systems. Since both NAND flash memory and PCM have limited lifetime, how to effectively manage NAND flash memory in PCM-based embedded systems, while considering the endurance issue is very important. In this paper, we present for the first time a write-activity-aware NAND flash memory management scheme, called PCM-FTL, to effectively manage NAND flash memory and enhance the endurance of PCM-based embedded systems. The basic idea is to preserve each bit in flash mapping table, which is stored in PCM, from being inverted frequently, i.e., we focus on minimizing the number of bit flips in a PCM cell when updating the flash mapping table. PCM-FTL employs a two-level mapping mechanism, which not only focuses on minimizing the write activities of PCM but also considers the access behavior of I/O requests. We evaluate PCM-FTL using a variety of realistic I/O traces. Experimental results show that the proposed technique can achieve an average reduction of 93.10% and a maximum reduction of 98.98% in the maximum number of bit flips for a PCM-based embedded system with 1GB NAND flash memory. We hope this work can serve as a first step towards the design of write-activity-aware FTL for the PCM-based embedded systems via simple and feasible modifications.

Published in:

Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), 2011 IEEE 32nd

Date of Conference:

Nov. 29 2011-Dec. 2 2011