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In this paper Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHE-PWM) based on Particle Swarm Optimization is proposed for the control of a five-phase three-level NPC inverter. The aim of using this method is the enhancement of the output voltage quality. To achieve this requirement such as a desired fundamental magnitude and the elimination of a defined number of low order harmonics, the SHE-PWM is presented by the minimization of a constrained nonlinear objective function. It is based on the calculation of the switching angles vector solution representing the best minimal value for the objective function. The results obtained prove the effectiveness of the proposed method due to its simplicity and rapid convergence.