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Despite their generality, conventional Volterra filters are inadequate for some applications, due to the huge number of parameters that may be needed for accurate modelling. When a state-space model of the target system is known, this can be assessed by computing its kernels, which also provides valuable information for choosing an adequate alternate Volterra filter structure, if necessary, and is useful for validating parameter estimation procedures. In this letter, we derive expressions for the kernels by using the Carleman bilinearization method, for which an efficient algorithm is given. Simulation results are presented, which confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach.