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Influence of Tin Deposition Methods on Tin Whisker Formation

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7 Author(s)
Pinol, L.A. ; Johns Hopkins Univ. Appl. Phys. Lab., Laurel, MD, USA ; Melngailis, John ; Charles, H.K., Jr. ; Lee, D.M.
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The effect of pure tin deposition method on the propensity to form tin whiskers was studied over the course of one year. Deposition methods employed include matte and bright electroplating, electroless plating, sputtering, and evaporation (crucible resistive and electron beam). Films produced under high vacuum, via electron beam evaporation or DC sputtering, were found to whisker immediately, while matte electroplated and electroless plated films took 9 weeks to form whiskers. Films formed by resistive evaporation and bright electroplating displayed no whisker starts after more than a year of ambient aging. Film thickness and average grain size were not found to impact whisker propensity.

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Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:1 ,  Issue: 12 )