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A comprehensive approach to the real-time simulation of power converters using a state-space representation is covered in this paper. Systematic formulations of state-space equations as well as a new switch model are presented. The proposed switch model exhibits a natural switching behavior, which is a valuable characteristic for the real-time simulation of power converters, thereby allowing individual treatment of switching devices irrespective of the converter topology. Successful implementations of the proposed switch model on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device are reported, with two alternative approaches: 1) precomputing network equations for all switch state combinations and 2) solving network equations on-chip using the Gauss-Seidel iterative method. A two-level three-phase voltage source converter is implemented using the first approach, with a time step of 80 ns and a switching frequency of 200 kHz. Ideal and nonideal boost converters are also implemented on FPGA using the second approach, with a time step of 75 ns and a switching frequency of 20 kHz. Comparison with SPICE models shows that the proposed switch model offers very satisfactory accuracy and precision.
Date of Publication: Dec. 2012