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Arrays of vertically aligned ZnO:Cl/ZnO core-shell nanowires were used to demonstrate that the control of the coaxial doping profile in homojunction nanostructures can improve their surface charge carrier transfer while conserving potentially excellent transport properties. It is experimentally shown that the presence of a ZnO shell enhances the photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO:Cl nanowires up to a factor 5. Likewise, the ZnO shell promotes the visible photoluminescence band in highly conducting ZnO:Cl nanowires. These lines of evidence are associated with the increase of the nanowires’ surface depletion layer.