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Drawing on a sample set of supervisor-subordinate dyads from Mainland China, the mediating and moderating effects of traditionality on relationships between Authority leadership and Organization Citizenship Behavior was examined. We found that traditionality is not only mediation but also moderation of the positively relationship between Authority leadership and Organization Citizenship Behavior. Implications for management theory and practice are discussed. It has important theoretical and practical significance for Chinese leadership research and practice. Implications and future research directions are discussed.