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Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is an interesting but difficult topic of research. It uses the visual features to achieve the image searching on database. In this paper, we propose an image indexing for CBIR based on color feature, which consider both the computational complexity and the spatial relationship. We use a 3D mathematical model to design the color codebook and exploit the feature of the query image to adopt it. In the experiments, we discuss the three parameters affecting the performance and find out the corresponding optimal value to raise the retrieval speed and accuracy. Besides, we also demonstrate that the proposed scheme is robust for some image distortions and best matches human perception overall.