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This letter presents an investigation on scalloping correction in the Terrain Observation by Progressive Scan (TOPS) imaging mode for synthetic aperture radar systems with electronically steered phased array antennas. A theoretical simulation of the scalloping is performed, and two correction methods are introduced. The simulation is based on a general cardinal sine (sinc) antenna model as well as on the TerraSAR-X (TSX) antenna model. Real TSX data acquired over rainforest are used for demonstration and verification of the scalloping simulation and correction. Furthermore, a calibration approach, taking into account the special TOPS imaging mode properties, is introduced.