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This paper addresses the problem of fault-tolerant control for Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems with actuator faults. First, a general actuator fault model is proposed, which integrates time-varying bias faults and time-varying gain faults. Then, sliding-mode observers (SMOs) are designed to provide a bank of residuals for fault detection and isolation. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a novel fault-diagnostic algorithm is proposed to estimate the actuator fault, which removes the classical assumption that the time derivative of the output errors should be known as in some existing work. Further, a novel fault-estimation observer is designed. Utilizing the estimated actuator fault, an accommodation scheme is proposed to compensate for the effect of the fault. In addition, a sufficient condition for the existence of SMOs is derived according to Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, simulation results of a near-space hypersonic vehicle are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.