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Antenna polarization states always vary with scan direction. Here this phenomenon is called spatial polarization characteristic (SPC) of antenna. Based on the single polarized radar antenna, by sufficiently utilizing of the inherent polarization property of antenna (i.e. the property that polarization state is not a constant but a function of antenna's spatial scanning direction), a novel polarization scattering matrix (PSM) measurement method is established. This method has the following advantages: (i) It does not need dual orthogonal polarization channels; (ii) the PSM of target can be obtained just by using the prior knowledge of SPC and by improving the signal processing mode of received radar signal. The modern radar systems can make use of this property in its measurement of target polarization scattering property in the searching or angle tracking stage.