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In this work, a process for the thermal activated atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ruthenium from the organometallic heteroleptic precursor [(ethylcyclopentadienyl)(pyrrolyl)ruthenium] with molecular oxygen was developed and characterized. Silicon substrates were precleaned in hydrofluoric acid and preheated to a specific temperature before coating with ruthenium. The corresponding cycle-by-cycle growth was monitored throughout the entire ALD process time, utilizing an in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometer. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were applied at a reference sample to generate an appropriate optical model for the translation of the ellipsometric spectra into Ru film thicknesses. Given a representative set of process parameters the cycle-by-cycle growth was studied in detail, obtaining information about incubation, nucleation, linear growth and delamination. In order to determine the ALD characteristic dependencies, the following process parameters were varied while applying ellipsometry during the linear film growth regime on as-deposited ruthenium film surfaces; thus excluding effects from the initial foreign substrate material: both reactant doses and purging times, the substrate temperature and the total pressure. During the respective film growth experiments, one process parameter-setting was changed each 15 ALD cycles, which enabled a fast and extensive process development.
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films (Volume:30 , Issue: 1 )
Date of Publication: Jan 2012