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Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can be used to ameliorate the impact of impairments to the lower limb neuromuscular motor system that affect gait. Existing AFO technologies include passive devices with fixed and articulated joints, semiactive devices that modulate damping at the joint, and active devices that make use of a variety of technologies to produce power to move the foot. Emerging technologies provide a vision for fully powered, untethered AFOs. However, the stringent design requirements of light weight, small size, high efficiency, and low noise present significant engineering challenges before such devices will be realized. Once such devices appear, they will present new opportunities for clinical treatment of gait abnormalities.