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Space based information system security risk evaluation is the important content of the protection of it. Basic on the analysis of the system's structure and those attack it faced, This paper improved the attack tree model, then a new quantitative risk evaluation method was studied here. While the risk evaluation steps was given, the risk value of the leaf node was quantified by the use of the multi-attribute utility theory, then the system's risk value can be calculated. The risk evaluation method studied here can solve the problem of the space based information system security risk evaluation preferably in virtue of its good objectivity, realizability and its clear process.