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The Smart Grid is an important milestone for the development of modern societies, which have increased their energy demand and largely depends on a reliable power supply. The management of the Smart Grid requires the installation of distributed and reactive control systems that are able to represent the interests of users, manage the demand on real time and operate the renewable energy sources safely and efficiently. To this end, one of the most accepted models is based on smart local devices that bargain the activity of the production and consumption units on behalf of users. However, the adoption of this technology poses important challenges that have not been considered in depth so far, and that will affect the efficiency, flexibility and reliability of the grid. This paper analyzes these challenges and puts forward the basis of a new model that aims to solve them.