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The characteristics of the nitride-based blue light-emitting diode (LED) with an AlGaN/GaN superlattice (SL) electron-blocking layer (EBL) of gradual Al mole fraction are analyzed numerically and experimentally. The emission spectra, carrier concentrations in the quantum wells, energy band diagrams, electrostatic fields, and internal quantum efficiency are investigated. The results indicate that the LED with an AlGaN/GaN SL EBL of gradual Al mole fraction has a better hole injection efficiency, lower electron leakage, and smaller electrostatic fields in its active region over the LED with a conventional rectangular AlGaN EBL or with a normal AlGaN/GaN SL EBL. The results also show that the efficiency droop is markedly improved when the SL EBL of gradual Al mole fraction is used.