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We address the Primary User (PU) detection (spectrum sensing) problem, relevant to cognitive radio, from a finite random matrix theoretical (RMT) perspective. Specifically, we employ recently-derived closed-form and exact expressions for the distribution of the standard condition number (SCN) of uncorrelated and semi-correlated random dual central Wishart matrices of finite sizes in the design Hypothesis-Testing algorithms to detect the presence of PU signals. In particular, two algorithms are designed, with basis on the SCN distribution in the absence (H_0) and in the presence (H_1) of PU signals, respectively. Due to an inherent property of the SCN's, the H_0 test requires no estimation of SNR or any other information on the PU signal, while the H_1 test requires SNR only. Further attractive advantages of the new techniques are: a) due to the accuracy of the finite SCN distributions, superior performance is achieved under a finite number of samples, compared to asymptotic RMT-based alternatives; b) since expressions to model the SCN statistics both in the absence and presence of PU signal are used, the statistics of the spectrum sensing problem in question is completely characterized; and c) as a consequence of a) and b), accurate and simple analytical expressions for the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) — both in terms of the probability of detection as a function of the probability of false alarm (P_D versus P_F) and in terms of the probability of acquisition as a function of the probability of miss detection (P_A versus P_M) — are yielded. It is also shown that the proposed finite RMT-based algorithms outperform all similar alternatives currently known in the literature, at a substantially lower complexity. In the process, several new results on the distributions of eigenvalues and SCNs of random Wishart Matrices are offered, including a closed-form of the Marchenko-Pastur's Cumulative Density Function (CDF) and extensions of the latte- , as well as variations of asymptotic the distributions of extreme eigenvalues (Tracy-Widom) and their ratio (Tracy-Widom-Curtiss), which are simpler than those obtained with the "spiked population model".