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Two models for the calculation of ionization cross sections by electron impact on atoms, the Binary-Encouter-Bethe and the Deutsch-Märk models, have been implemented; they are intended to extend and improve Geant4 simulation capabilities in the energy range below 1 keV. The physics features of the implementation of the models are described, and their differences with respect to the original formulations are discussed. Results of the verification with respect to the original theoretical sources and of extensive validation with respect to experimental data are reported. The validation process also concerns the ionization cross sections included in the Evaluated Electron Data Library used by Geant4 for low energy electron transport. Among the three cross section options, the Deutsch-Märk model is identified as the most accurate at reproducing experimental data over the energy range subject to test.