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Monitoring environmental changes from space requires extremely well-calibrated observations to achieve the necessary high accuracy and stability. The calibration differences between the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) thermal bands provide a valuable quality assessment of the instrument performance. This letter compares the calibration differences between the Aqua MODIS and NOAA-18 AVHRR bands at 11.0 and 12.0 μm using simultaneous nadir overpass observations obtained in nearly parallel orbits. Impacts due to the relative spectral-response differences between the two sensors are estimated by MODTRAN simulations with real-time atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor, atmospheric pressure and ozone, and surface skin temperatures. Results show that the temperature difference after the removal of atmospheric impacts is within 0.30 K (or 0.40% in radiance) across the effective calibration range for the 11.0-μm band/channel. For the 12.0-μm band, the differences are 0.40 K (or 0.50%) at the typical radiance and up to 0.70 K (or 0.90%) close to the maximum radiance, indicating an excellent calibration consistency between MODIS and AVHRR for both bands.