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A fuzzy min-max neural network based on data core (DCFMN) is proposed for pattern classification. A new membership function for classifying the neuron of DCFMN is defined in which the noise, the geometric center of the hyperbox, and the data core are considered. Instead of using the contraction process of the FMNN described by Simpson, a kind of overlapped neuron with new membership function based on the data core is proposed and added to neural network to represent the overlapping area of hyperboxes belonging to different classes. Furthermore, some algorithms of online learning and classification are presented according to the structure of DCFMN. DCFMN has strong robustness and high accuracy in classification taking onto account the effect of data core and noise. The performance of DCFMN is checked by some benchmark datasets and compared with some traditional fuzzy neural networks, such as the fuzzy min-max neural network (FMNN), the general FMNN, and the FMNN with compensatory neuron. Finally the pattern classification of a pipeline is evaluated using DCFMN and other classifiers. All the results indicate that the performance of DCFMN is excellent.