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We reported the enhanced light extraction efficiency in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with gallium oxide hydroxide (GaOOH) rods. The GaOOH rods were prepared by an aqueous gallium nitrate solution at 80°C and then coated on the surface of indium tin oxide electrodes of LEDs by a simple drop coating process. The synthesized GaOOH rods indicated a rhombus-shaped rod structure with average lengths of 2 μm and lateral dimensions of 50-500 nm. For LEDs with GaOOH rods, the light output powers were increased by 24.3% and 26.4% compared to the conventional LED on patterned sapphire substrate at 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively. Also, there was no distinct degradation in electrical characteristics of LEDs with GaOOH rods.