By Topic

Moving Boundary Simulation and Experimental Verification of High Aspect-Ratio Through-Silicon-Vias for 3-D Integration

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

4 Author(s)
Chongshen Song ; Inst. of Microelectron., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China ; Zheyao Wang ; Zhimin Tan ; Litian Liu

Because of the pinch-off effect, filling high aspect- ratio, void- and seam-free through-silicon-vias (TSVs) using damascene copper electroplating is one of the technical challenges in realizing 3-D integration and packaging. This paper presents simulation investigation and experimental verification of bottom-up copper electroplating (BCE) to verify its capability in fabricating high aspect-ratio void-free TSVs. Theoretical models for blind- and through-via copper electroplating are derived, and a generic solving method is developed by employing a moving boundary simulation to address the challenge of time-dependent process. The time-resolved evolution of electroplating profiles is simulated after the ion concentration distribution and the electric current density are obtained. The simulation results predict the behaviors of copper electroplating of blind- and through-vias, and reveal the mechanism of void formation. By employing a transfer wafer to provide seed layers, improved BCE is developed and high aspect-ratio void-free TSVs are successfully fabricated. The experimental results verify the theoretical model and the moving boundary simulation method, and prove the capability of BCE in filling high aspect-ratio TSVs.

Published in:

Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:2 ,  Issue: 1 )