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Due to wide spread and convenience of video data transmission, data security has become a key issue. This paper presents a new scheme to encrypt high-definition streaming video based on chaos theory and pattern recognition theory. Taking pattern recognition theory as its strategy, this scheme generates chaotic sequences by employing Logistic map and Chebyshev map. The scheme also introduces the authentication information that is used as control parameters of chaotic systems. Therefore, the compound of four one-dimensional chaotic maps reduces the complexity and exhaustive computational overhead of high-dimensional chaos encryption system while the security strength is guaranteed at the same time. Furthermore, the introduction of authentication information and pattern recognition theory makes further contribution to confidentiality. Experiments show that this scheme meets the requirements of real-time transmission and improves the strength of security and efficiency of encryption.