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Real time and accurate measurement of thermal conductivity of polymer composites with thermal conductive fillers challenges researchers in the industrial application. Here we present an in-situ measurement method by embedding a LED or diode as a temperature sensor into the filled polymer and using the well-established T3Ster transient method to determine the temperature response of the sensor in polymer. Numerical model fitting is applied to estimate the thermal conductivity of the polymer composites with different filler/polymer ratios. Moreover we analyze the surface thermal properties of the polymer composite in near and far infrared with a range of 2.5μm-20μm. These findings are compared with other test methods such as the laser flash method and the Modular Differential Scanning Calorimeter (MDSC).