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The antibacterial capability of silver loaded hydroxyapatite(HA-Ag) in both poor nutrient phosphate buffer saline solution(PBS, pH = 7.4) and nutrient rich medium, which represented two kinds of typical conditions in real life, was evaluated respectively using Escherichia coli as a model. At 0.4 mg/mL in PBS solution containing an initial cell concentration of 106/mL, HA Ag killed all the E. coli cells in the PBS solution within 4.5 h. In a nutrient rich medium containing a cell concentration of 107/mL, HA Ag exhibited a remarkable inhibitory effect of E.coli cells. The maximum specific growth rate in the medium containing 3 mg/mL HA Ag was only 0. 292, 26% of that i n a control sample which was 1.116, and the viable cell concentration in the former HA-Ag medium was just 40% of that in the control. As a safe antibacterial agent, HA-Ag powder demonstrated antibacterial efforts both in poor nutrient and in nutrient rich environment. It seems that the HA-Ag compound hold a lot of promises for practical applications.