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Endogenous ethylene production and alternative oxidase (AOX) protein expression in Royal Gala apple fruits were investigated after treatments with cold (0 for 1 week) and heat (38 C for 1 h). A monoclonal antibody to the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway from Sauromatum guttatum was used to identify the AOX protein in apple fruits. The molecular mass of AOX in Royal Gala apple fruits is approximately 38 kDa, simlar to those reported in tobacco and torrato. The cold treatment depressed the release of endogenous ethylene production before the climacteric ethylene production and obviously induced the expression of AOX protein expression. The heat treatment had the opposite effects on the ethylene production and AOX protein expression. In addition, the climax of endogenous ethylene production preceded the maximum AOX expression after the col d temperature treatment. It is therefore proposed that in climacteric fruits the production of induced ethylene is not coordinated with the level of AOX protein.