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Coordinating Vehicle-to-Grid Services With Energy Trading

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2 Author(s)
Al-Awami, A.T. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., King Fahd Univ. of Pet. & Miner., Dhahran, Saudi Arabia ; Sortomme, E.

Energy trading in day-ahead electricity markets can be highly risky, especially for entities with considerable stochastic energy penetration. This is because of the uncertain energy prices, balancing prices, stochastic energy availability, and demand. In this work, coordinating unidirectional vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services with energy trading is proposed to mitigate these trading risks. This coordination is possible due to the recent advances in smart grid technologies. The case of a load-serving entity (LSE) that owns thermal and wind plants, and is obligated to serve a load with a significant number of electric vehicles (EVs) is investigated. The problem of energy trading in coordination with V2G services is formulated as a mixed-integer stochastic linear program. The objective is to maximize the LSE's profits while maintaining its risks within acceptable levels. The conditional value at risk is used as a risk control measure. A case study that compares coordinated vs. uncoordinated EV charging is presented. The simulation results demonstrate the benefits of coordinating V2G services with other generation assets for the LSE and the EV owners as well as the impact of this coordination on the environment.

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Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:3 ,  Issue: 1 )