Skip to Main Content
Performance-based design is more holistic and flexible than prescriptive design for providing safety in large complex buildings. Here, a multi-agent method to model the egress patterns of evacuees is combined with a microscopic pedestrian simulation model used to analyze the forces between individuals in a densely populated enclosed space in a crowd crushing and trampling analysis (CroC&Ts). The system is used to model egress patterns in a typical crowd evacuation simulation. The simulations indicate that some individuals will die from crushing in 2 m and 4 m wide exits in emergencies. The simulations also show that the fatality probability increases when barriers obstacled the path and when the egress distances were larger. The simulations validate the conclusions of the stranded crowd model (SCM) and provide quantitative predictions of the crowd crushing and trampling risk. Therefore, the CroC&Ts can provide performancebased egress designs for large pubic buildings and improve crowd safety management and emergency planning.